Category Archives: Materials

One-size-fits all?

As I mentioned in my earlier post, we need to produce our own materials to offer students more up-to-date data , reinforce their learning and most importantly, meet  their needs. There seems to be a mismatch between what coursebooks include and learners need. This probably results from globally designed coursebooks trying to cater for different needs in one book.  If we regard learners as customers and continue to publish books for market purposes , how can we expect them to be satisfied  with a ‘one size-fits all’  product?

one size fits all

This cartoon shows a man holding a tee-shirt with the slogan “One size fits all”. The man asks his three colleagues, “Will this do for you”. One colleague replies, “No-that won’t fit Me”. Another says, “We are ALL unique with individual needs and requirements”. Similarly, one coursebook doesn’t fit all as every class is unique and has a different cultural background, needs, interests and abilities.

Using teacher-produced materials makes a number of valid points because they are relevant to students’ needs that reflect local content, issues and concerns. I have observed in my classrooms that students don’t only struggle  to learn English but also to understand the culture.  Most of them even don’t know famous singers,actors and actresses in the world.  At this point, teachers can make some adaptations, modify the content according to the learners’ needs or bring their own materials to the classroom. Students will probably be more interested in talking  about the people they know. I am also aware of the fact that learning a language requires gaining its culture but sometimes these adaptations are necessary to engage the learners.

On the other hand, I am not against of using coursebooks as they also offer many advantages both teachers and learners. Some advantages Richards (2001:255) notes are as follows. They help standardize instruction which is very important to ensure that the students in different classes receive similar content. I worked at a university where 200 teachers were working and there were nearly 50 classes. In such a big institution, not using a coursebook cannot be an option as students are tested in the same way. Another advantage is that they maintain quality because if a well-developed textbook is used, students are exposed to materials that have been tried and tested.  However, they can be supplemented by teacher-produced materials. Coursebooks can also train teachers who have limited teaching experience.  For example,if they are new in the profession, a coursebook together with the teacher’s manual can serve as a medium of initial teacher training.

This argument may raise the question whether to use coursebooks or teacher-produced materials in the EFL classroom. The point is surely rather that using materials that can cater the needs of learners. These needs can be met by coursebooks or teacher-produced materials depending on the unique nature of the classroom. Sometimes you can use both to reinforce the learning. For example, the teacher can create his/her worksheet to supplement the coursebook when it lacks appropriate exercises At this point, the teacher should be a good observer to analyze  the needs of the learners. If a coursebook is designed for market purposes, isn’t culturally appropriate and  has bland topics then it would be much more appropriate to use teacher-produced materials. On the contrary; if teachers are in the early stages of their careers and students are tested in the same way, coursebooks should be the primary source for teaching and could be supplemented by teacher-produced materials. Last but not least, teachers should be aware of the fact that ‘one size doesn’t fit all’ that’s why they should produce their own materials or make some adaptations where necessary regarding their learners’ needs.


Richards , J .C. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Exploring Visuals

For this session, we looked at some tools like Flickr, Bubblr and Bookr to create our own materials. I used Bookr to improve the worksheet I had prepared before. Bookr is a tool to share your own photobook by using Flickr images. Before looking at the material I created in Bookr, I want to give more information about Flickr. Flickr is a popular online photo-sharing service and is totally free. The best way to search for a photo is to insert a tag or a key word. You can easily create a group of photos for your class by placing them into different sets, tagging each one with the student who took the photo etc. and the best thing of Flickr is most of the images are in the public domain. The reason why I explained Flickr in detail is most coursebooks are lack of authentic, recent and relevant supplementary visuals to texts.  It is because ” they rely heavily on stock or archive photography banks known as visual content industry which is responsible for nearly 75 percent of the images we find in advertising, marketing and design. It is this that gives ELT materials that artificial, airbrushed feel” ( Ben Goldstein). So, why don’t you produce your own materials and make them visually appealing  by using Flickr or your  mobile phone, camera. The visuals you add will probably have more impact on learners than the ones in coursebooks as they are original, recent and relevant to texts.

Here is my Bookr and the worksheet my friend  and I created in Microsoft Word Worksheet – Yuksel & Sag

bookr     bookr2

bookr 3Bookr 4

The positive impact of visuals is  obvious when we compare them. Although the content in my Bookr and worksheet are same, they look completely different. The one in Bookr is like a unit in a coursebook, and looks professional.

As the graphic designer Alan Fletcher said:

Although words and pictures can signify the same thing, the effect they produce can be quite different. Writing ‘stars and stripes’ on a piece of cloth is not as effective as illustrating them. The words don’t provoke the same emotional charge.

All of my classmates and my tutor agreed that this improved version of the worksheet is better because there are visuals that will probably attract and engage learners. They also liked the number of visuals and how they are placed in my Bookr. While designing it, I tried to avoid using visuals in both pages which may be distractive. The only negative feedback I got was about the length of the text in each page. We all agreed that long texts may distract learners. Taking these comments into consideration, I edited  the worksheet and this is the latest version of my Bookr. However, there isn’t an activity section in the latest version. It is because I lost my work two times while trying to create my new Bookr and the last time I didn’t want to take any risks and published the material.  I think Bookr is good for adding visuals and writing 2 or 3 sentences about them not for  long texts as you don’t have any save option. For example; you can teach nationalities, countries, flags, jobs etc. through Bookr and Microsoft Office Publisher would be more appropriate while creating worksheets with long texts and visuals.

One of the principles for developing materials set by Tomlinson is engaging learners both affectively and cognitively in the language learning experience. Teachers can provide this affective engagement through Bookr as visuals are fun and appealing. Learners will probably enjoy visuals that get their attention and engage in the text more. Bookr may also provide the cognitive engagement as visuals aid comprehension. It  may also increase learners’ retention because image rich texts help students remember the story which might build their memory skills.

As most of the  today’s youth population is visually literate, the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” has never been truer than before. Therefore, try to use visuals as much as possible to develop visual literacy, engage learners, illustrate language,increase retention  of new language items and so on.

This post  is 711 words. Perhaps I should have drawn half a picture instead? 🙂


Goldstein, B. (2008) Working with Images: A Resource Book for the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Images in Language Teaching

Images – as visual aids- have long played an important role in language teaching. “It would be hard to imagine a language-teaching context without the presence of flashcards, wallcharts, coursebook images, downloaded photos, time lines, board drawings, learner-produced art-work, and so on” (Goldstein 2008:1). The reason why images have become an indispensable part of language teaching could be the benefits that they offer both learners and teachers. Some of them are as follows.

 Images can

  •  be used at all levels.
  •  introduce ‘outside world’ artefacts into class.
  • provide prompts for language production (e.g describe and draw).
  • make linguistic concepts easier to grasp.
  • act as speech cues in exams.
  • play a part in many classroom activities, e.g information gap tasks, etc.

ELT teachers should use images actively in class to

  • stimulate language use
  • illustrate language
  • engage students on an imaginative-level
  • reflect our world’s ever-increasing dependence on the visual image
  • develop visual literacy.

According to Goldstein, we can also look from the frame and

  • explore the cultural significance of images and related social issues.
  • consider images as communicating open-ended messages (rather than taking them at face value).
  • analyse the formal composition of images and their relationship to text (multimodality).
  • develop learner’s skills in interpreting images and creating their own.

The role of images in ELT  & some classroom activities

A image can be used as a decoration, visual aid,  complement to text, subject  for analysis, signs,symbols or icons and a form of subversion. We can use images with different activities like describing images, interpreting images etc… The images below (illustrations and signs) are  taken from the book “Working with Images” by Ben Goldstein.


Different activities can be done through images. I want to share some practical ideas that can be applied in a language classroom. With this image, Goldstein suggested an activity that aims to practise various lexical fields: materials,function etc. Adverbs: sometimes,often,usually, etc. and their position in the sentence. In this activity, students create a mental image of an object, describing it in the first person to others who have to guess what it is. The activity is called I am… and this personification of objects is something students enjoy because it allows them to conjure up a number of different and unexpected images. Teachers can prepare their own flashcards based on lexical sets they want to revise, e.g. furniture, animals, buildings, food, everyday objects etc. To make the activity more clear, the teacher may read the text below as an example and ask students listen and guess the object.

I’m sometimes made of plastic. I’m usually round. I have many different shapes. But I’m often quite small. I have numbers. I often sit next to bed. You usually use me during the week. You need me but you don’t like me.  Answer: Alarm clock


The picture above includes different signs which can be used as an ELT material, as well. Goldstein suggests another activity by using these different signs. The main focus of the activity is to teach  functional language in sign language and different registers (formal/informal). The activity is simple but seems engaging. First, distribute different signs to the students in pairs or small groups and make sure that they know the following different sign types: ‘warning’, ‘security’, ‘advertising’, ‘request’, ‘road safety’, and their concepts and present the class with the following questions:

– What kind of sign is each and where would you find it?

– How could you communicate the message of each in one simple sentence? e.g. Sign 1: Don’t even think of parking here –  It is illegal to park here.

As a second activity, students choose adjectives from the list (polite, threatening, humorous, insistent, friendly, official) and identify the style of each sign. Activities can be expanded. These questions can also be addressed to students.

In what ways are these signs unconventional or original?

What would a conventional equivalent look like, in each case?

Why could signs C and E be considered the odd ones out?

As it is clear from the examples, images can be used at all levels. The first exercise can be  done in elementary or pre-intermediate classes whereas in the second one the target level could be intermediate, upper-intermediate or advanced. I think the best thing about images is you don’t need any other materials, just an  appropriate image. If you still haven’t tried teaching only with  images , why don’t you leave all the materials aside for a day and listen to them in the class as the expression says  ‘Images Speak Louder than Words’.


Goldstein, B. (2008) Working with Images: A Resource Book for the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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For this session, we all created our own videos and considered ways in which they can be used as an ELT material. I think videos are an effective way to capture students’ attention. Based on my experiences, students are much more interested in videos than any other teaching material. As it is discussed in McGrath’s book, walking into the class and saying: ‘Good morning. Open your books at page 37’ is not the best way to capture the attention of a group of learners, and many experienced teachers use ‘ warm-up’ activities for this reason. Videos can be used as ‘warmers’ to capture the interests of students. Moreover, learning can be more fun through videos and they can also provide light relief when learners are tired (the ‘wet Friday afternoon effect’).

I shot four videos in Turkey. Prior to shooting them, I planned them and decided what to shoot, when to shoot (forecast the weather) and how to use it as an ELT material. I recorded each video with a hand-held camera and I didn’t use a tripod. After watching the videos, I realized that If I had used the tripod, they would have been more high in quality as I could have reduced the camera shake. I used stable shots and avoided zooms not to distract learners or people watching the video.  Finally, I edited the videos in Windows Movie Maker , added some music to make them more effective and uploaded them to YouTube.

Video 1

As I said in my previous posts, language learning materials could be anything. They could be coursebooks, newspapers, food packages and a YouTube video as well. The thing that needs to be considered is the goal of the material. With this video, I aim to teach   imperatives. As a warmer, I will ask students to watch the video which shows the steps of making a traditional Turkish food called ‘gozleme’. Then, I will explain its recipe and try to focus students on the imperative form of the verbs. Finally, I will ask students to write about their traditional or favourite food. At this production stage, student will not only learn about imperatives but also practice discourse markers like firstly,secondly,finally etc.

Video 2

I aim to use my second video in a skills lesson (speaking and writing).  As a pre-watching activity, I will show the painting below that is highly related to the video and ask the students to discuss what they see in the painting and address them questions like ‘what can be around?’ ,’what do people do around the clock tower?’ etc. With this pre-watching activity, they will probably be more interested in the video while watching as they may want to check their guesses whether they are correct or not.


Here is the video I recorded in Izmir, the 3rd biggest city in Turkey,.

I will  use this video as a warmer  for the more extended activities like speaking or writing.After watching the video, I will ask the students to talk about it with their partners and then tell their hometown to each other. I may also use it in a writing class where I can ask students to write their hometown or the city they want to live in.

videos 3 & 4


In almost every coursebook, there is a unit aiming to teach hobbies and some collocations like play + sports or musical instrument. After watching, I will ask students to talk about their hobbies and address questions like ‘Do they play any musical instrument?’ If yes, which one? or ‘which musical instrument do they like listening to most and why?’. Apart from hobbies, I may also use these videos while talking about feelings, especially the second one because it is more focused. I will ask questions like ‘How do they feel while  listening  to it’, ‘When do they listen to music? (happy,sad etc.)’.

As videos are meta-materials, ’empty’ pedagogical procedures, the teacher decides on the nature of the input and applies procedure to it (Tomlinson 2011:385). This can also be seen in the examples above. The teacher may use one video in a speaking class and  the same video in a writing class, as well. The important thing is setting the objective of a lesson and apply appropriate activities to it.


McGrath, I . (2002) Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

 Tomlinson, B.  (ed). (2011)  Materials Development in Language Teaching. (2nd ed) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Designing for Print

It is important for teachers to be able to create their own materials because  teachers know their own students and will be able to ‘tune’ the material to suit their level, their aptitude, their interests, their needs, and personalize it so that it seems even more meaningful (p.84).  Moreover, teachers should  know how to design teaching materials to make the material they created more appealing and motivate students both affectively and cognitively.

For this session, my friend and I  designed a worksheet for pre-intermediate Turkish learners. Before designing it, we watched Jason Renshaw’s video in which we explored some interesting approaches to materials design. In his video, he demonstrates how to build professional teaching materials using Microsoft Word and create a foundation through headers and footers. We first changed the layout from portrait to landscape. However, the feedback we got in the class discussion was not to switch to landscape mode because learners may have difficulty in reading  the material and it may cause eyestrain and be distracting. Then, we added a header in which we created our template and inserted a square in the header space. We wrote the subject of the worksheet ‘Non-gradable adjectives’ into this square. Thus, students can file  and easily find it when they want to revise for it. We also put a blank space at the bottom , so students can write their names on it that personalizes the worksheet. To make it visually appealing, we chose vivid colours -red and orange-. We put some cartoons (spiders) and boxes to attract the learners, as well. Finally, we added a footer and wrote our names to claim the ownership of the material. If you want to learn more about designing worksheets  in Microsoft Word, watch the video below and  other related 11 videos of Jason Renshaw.

My friend and I are familiar with the Turkish context as both of us taught at a Turkish state university. While designing the worksheet, we took their level, needs and interests into consideration. As said earlier, we aim to teach pre-intermediate level. Although they are pre-intermediate students, they are not actually. For this reason, some exercises can be found below level but they are not in Turkish context. The English proficiency level in Turkey is considerably low when it is compared to with other countries. According to EF EPI 2011, Turkey shows very low proficiency in English and was ranked as 43rd in the index where 44 countries were represented. You can find more detailed information about Turkish state universities in our presentation below.

 Turkish context

 Here is the worksheet in which we created everything ourselves

page 1

We first aim to present the non-gradable  adjectives in  the text and ask them to guess from the context. Rather than explaining the adjectives explicitly, we adopted an inductive approach which may be time-consuming but more efficient as students learn the new vocabulary by discovering on their own.  The last line of the text is missing to attract learner’s attention  and make them involve in the lesson by discussing with their partners.

page 2

 In order to check whether their guesses are correct or not, they can do the matching exercise on the second page. Exercises are graded from easy to more difficult to motivate the weaker learners. If these students answer the questions correctly, they may feel a sense of achievment, thereby gain confidence.

page 3

On the last page, there is a gap-filling exercise which is more challenging than the matching one. Thus, proficient learners may also feel a sense of achievement. The end-up activity is writing in which they will write their own story using the adjectives they have learnt.

Our template for this worksheet is:

  • guessing meaning from context
  • prediction of target vocabulary
  • discussion with their partners
  • matching exercise to reinforce the vocabulary
  • gap-filling exercise (more challenging than the matching exercise)
  • end-up activity (writing)

Although it is time-consuming and demanding, teachers should create their own materials when published materials do not cater for the needs of their learners.


 McGrath, I . (2002) Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

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Principles and Frameworks for Materials Design

It is really surprising that most materials writers describe the process of developing materials as ‘ad hoc’ and ‘spontaneous’. That is to say, they rely on their intuition based on their experiences and choose materials that are likely to work. Like tacit knowledge, they cannot explain how they develop materials. Prowse (1998) reports what ELT  materials writers think about developing materials.

Most of the writers agree that:

  • Writing is fun because it’s creative.
  • They rely heavily on their intuition.
  • They view textbook writing in the same way as writing fiction (focus on creative process of writing).
  • They emphasize the constraints of the syllabus.

However;  materials writers need to have some principles of learning and teaching which can guide their writing  and adopt a framework  in order to facilitate coherence and consistency.

This session was so helpful to understand the principles and frameworks for developing materials because we were mostly active in the classroom. We first tried to understand the principles set by Tomlinson who is the founder and president of the Materials Development Association (MATSDA). We talked about these principles with our partners and then there was a class discussion in which we explained them to each other.

These principles are:

  • A prerequisite for language acquisition is that the learners are exposed to a rich, meaningful and comprehensible input of language in use.
  • In order for the learners to maximise their exposure to language in use, they need to be engaged both affectively and cognitively in the language experience.
  • Language learners who achieve positive affect are much more likely to achieve communicative competence than those who do not.
  • L2 language learners can benefit from using those mental resources which they typically utilise when acquiring and using their L1.
  • Language learners can benefit from noticing salient features of the input and from discovering how they are used.
  • Learners need opportunities to use language to try to achieve communicative purposes (2011:7).

Considering the  principles above, I think one of the most important ones is engaging learners both affectively  and cognitively. It  is important because there can  be dull texts in which teachers make so much effort to motivate learners and  engage them affectively. If a student finds a text boring, s/he  won’t be interested in. Therefore, material writers should provide choices of different texts, activities and variety. At this point, I disagree with one of my classmates in the session.  She thinks that if it is a business course, teachers should only use texts relating to business and they can motivate students by using different activities like role-play, group-work, discussion etc . On the contrary, I believe that even the course is designed for English for Specific purposes (ESP) or English for Academic Purposes (EAP), there should be a wide range of texts and learners should be exposed to variety of genres.  Tomlinson noticed the danger of tedium and shared his experiences about this issue . One of the examples he gave is that a group of Saudi Arabian pilots complained that they were bored with reading about aircraft and airports and, almost simultaneously, a group of Iraqi diplomats complained that they were fed up with reading about politics and diplomacy. He also realized that when different texts like poetry were given to these students, they responded very enthusiastically  (2003:112).

As a second activity, we discussed Materials Design Principles – Materials should/shouldn’t…  We wrote our opinions about  ELT materials on strips of paper and grouped them into top, middle and bottom sets. Our views on the key principles that should underline ELT materials are as follows:

1 top



After this fruitful discussion, we have talked about the steps in materials design and looked at Jolly and Bolitho’s materials writing framework incorporating five stages.

1) IDENTIFICATION by teacher or learner(s) of a need to fulfill or a problem to solve by the creation of materials

2) EXPLORATION of the area of need/problem in terms of what language, what meanings, what functions, what skills, etc.

3) CONTEXTUAL REALISATION of materials by the finding of appropriate exercises and activities AND the writing of appropriate instructions for use

4) PEDAGOGICAL REALISATION of materials by the finding of appropriate exercises and activities AND the writing of appropriate instructions for use

5) PHYSICAL PRODUCTION of materials, involving consideration of layout, type size, visuals, reproduction, tape length, etc.


These stages are dynamic, so  materials writers do not need to follow the steps in exactly this order and go through all of these steps. However, they should keep these steps in mind in order to produce appropriate materials for the target learners. The first step, identification of need, is a vital part of materials preparation. Materials writers should be aware of the learners’ needs to satisfy them. They could conduct a needs analysis to identify the needs and objectives for the materials they plan to produce. Next, needs should be analyzed by using appropriate resources like existing materials or different media. By doing so, teachers could decide whether to focus on grammar, knowledge or skill in the classroom.  If the teacher recognizes these needs in step 1, s/he can skip step 2 as the framework is dynamic. Third, contextual realisation is important to identify an appropriate context in which to present and practice the language because if the material is inappropriate, learners will probably gain the culture but they won’t practice it. As I mentioned in my earlier posts, it is difficult to teach “speed-dating” in Turkish context as it is outside the cultural experience of Turkish learners. The fourth stage is pedagogical realisation where materials writers  must focus on the need and design activities that are clear and appropriate. The last one , physical production,  is  also important to attract and motivate  the learners.

I think this framework is very useful for materials writers and teachers as it shows “A teacher’s path through the production of new or adapted materials” (2011:113).


Tomlinson, B. (ed)(2011) Materials Development in Language Teaching. (2nd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tomlinson, B. (ed)(2003) Developing Materials for Language Teaching. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.


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Materials Evaluation

In our second session, we discussed materials evaluation that  refers to attempts to measure the value of materials. My friend and I tried to evaluate  chapter 7  from  the coursebook called ‘English Unlimited’ and  predict whether it will work or not in EFL context. Whilst analyzing the chapter, we have considered the checklist that Ansary and Babaii set as a result of scrutinizing 10 EFL/ESL textbook-evaluation checklists and 10 EFL/ESL textbook reviews. Their evaluation checklist is as follows:

Content Presentation

  • Stating purpose(s) and objective(s)
    • For the total course
    • For individual units
  • Selection and its rationale
    • Coverage
    • Grading
    • Organization
    • Sequencing
  • Satisfaction of the syllabus
    • To the teacher
      • Providing a guide book
      • Giving advice on the methodology
        • Giving theoretical orientations
        • Key to the exercises
      • Supplementary materials
    • To the student
      • Piecemeal, unit-by-unit instruction
      • Graphics (relevant, free from unnecessary details, colorful, etc.)
      • Periodic revisions
      • Workbook
      • Exercise and activities
        • In the classroom
        • Homework
        • Sample exercises with clear instructions
        • Varied and copious
      • Periodic test sections
      • Accompanying audio-visual aids

Physical Make-up

  • Appropriate Size & weight
  • Attractive layout
  • Durability
  • High quality of editing and publishing
  • Appropriate title

Administrative Concerns

  • Macro-state policies
  • Appropriate for local situation
    • Culture
    • Religion
    • Gender
  • Appropriate Price

We could say that the book meets most of the criteria listed above but we  cannot assume whether it will work well or not with regard to specific learners by only looking at a chapter of the book or we cannot say  it is a good or rubbish coursebook since “coursebook evaluation is fundamentally a subjective and rule of-thumb activity and that no formula, grid or system will ever provide a definite yardstick”  (Leslie Sheldon, 1988:245). However; in the process of evaluating a teaching material, checklists should be taken into account as they  could give teachers and materials evaluators some ideas and make it easier for them to distinguish between what is likely be more or less suitable in relation to suitability for the age group,  level, cultural appropriateness, skills, teacher’s book etc.  I won’t mention everything but I want to point out two things that I found useful and interesting in this coursebook. The first one is teacher’s book which may help and give practical ideas to both novice and veteran teachers. It not only guides teachers but also offers alternative ways for teaching. There are also variety of actitivities for weak and strong students and extra activities such as printable worksheets with activity instructions and answer keys on the Teacher’s DVD-ROM that can alleviate teacher’s heavy workload. The second one is that the book isn’t culturally-biased. I think the writers take  EFL learners  into account while designing the coursebook. You can find reading texts and activities regarding different countries like Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Argentina, Turkey etc.  Although I taught for four years, this is the first time I’ve seen examples from Turkey in a coursebook which really interests me and my Turkish students will probably engage in these activities more as they know the context.  For example, in the exercise part of unit 7, there is a sentence comparing two famous singers in Turkey  and as a discussion activity teachers can ask the students whether they agree or not. There will probably be a good class discussion as students know about the topic. Based on my experiences, most Turkish students don’t know the famous singers,actors, or films in the world and it is sometimes really challenging to make them participate in the lesson.  In unit 9, there is also a listening activity regarding Turkish context which made me surprised. Therefore, students are not only exposed to British or American accent, they can listen to people from a wide range of places and different accents will familiarise them with the hearing both native and non-native speakers which they need in the real world. Finally, an English coursebook published by a renowned publishing company, more than an activity regarding Turkish context is unbelievable! I think this indicates there will be  more localized and culturally appropriate teaching materials in the future.

If you want to learn more about what some writers think while designing this coursebook, listen to their ideas behind the course.


Ansari and Babaii’s article can be accessed at:

Sheldon, L . E. (1988) Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. ELT Journal 42 (4) : pp.237 -246

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